What Is Dysplasia?
Dysplasia is a broad term used to describe abnormal growth of cells in an organ or a tissue. The abnormal growth can be on a microscopic level or a macroscopic scale. Epithelial and fibrous dysplasia of the bone is found at a microscopic level and hip, multicystic dysplastic kidney, cervical, and myelodysplastic syndrome are on a macroscopic scale. Depending on the abnormality of the cells and the effect of it on the organ or tissue it can be classified as severe, moderate, or mild. Before the normal cells become cancerous they go through many abnormal changes and can be found when they are seen under a microscope.
Dysplasia is not cancer but can turn to cancer in some instances. It can happen to any part of the body and is followed by other disorders.
What are the Symptoms of Dysplasia?
It is a condition that can affect any part of the body and the dysplasia Symptoms vary according to the affected area. It is essential to know and identify the Symptoms quickly as a quicker Diagnosis means a better chance of catching and arresting the abnormality. Some of the common type of dysplasia and their Symptoms are as below:
- Cervical: Has no Symptoms and it may be shown only during a pap test.
- Hip dysplasia: Hip pain is an early indicator of this. Other Symptoms include pain in the groin that lasts long and a snapping noise while walking.
- MDS or myelodysplastic syndrome: Again this shows no Symptoms, only a routine blood test which shows low RBC, WBC, and platelet count is an early Sign.
- Ectodermal dysplasia: It can affect the sweat glands, skin, teeth, nails, and hair. Abnormal teeth, dry skin, brittle hair, and discoloured nails are Symptoms.
- Skeletal dysplasia: Symptoms include dwarfism, curved bones, joint stiffness, large head, and slow growth.
Who is at Risk of Dysplasia?
Dysplasia is the abnormal growth of cells and can happen to children as well as adults. Children are at a higher Risk of having Developmental dysplasia especially the skeleton and various other body parts. The following children are at a higher Risk of having dysplasia:
- Kids born with low immunity
- Parents who pass on genetic changes to their kids
- Genetic mutation
- Lack of sufficient bone marrow in the blood
- Improper wrapping of infants using blankets
Adults too can have abnormal cell or tissue growth and when it is not stopped can become tumours. People who are at Risk are:
- People with low immunity
- Are unable to produce enough bone marrow for the body functions
- People with wrong dietary habits
- People who lead a sedentary lifestyle with little physical activity
- Patients undergoing Treatment for cancer-Chemotherapy/radiation.
- Family history
- Cigarette smokers
What are the Causes of Dysplasia?
The exact dysplasia Causes are yet to be determined and fully understood as it is complex. Moreover, since it can happen to many of the body parts research is being conducted on each of the different types of dysplasia to know the reason for its occurrence. However, until now it has been studied that some types like skeletal dysplasia happen due to DNA mutations of a fetus, but why it mutates is not clearly known.
Genes seem to play a role in developing this condition and hence people with a family history of this condition are more susceptible. But it may also be due to many other environmental factors too. In Dysplasia among adults, there seems to be a connection with the diet and conclusive proof is not yet available.
How is Dysplasia Diagnosed?
There are various types of dysplasia, some of them do not show any Symptoms at all. Dysplasia test for the most common types are as below:
- Skeletal dysplasia: It is an abnormal growth of bone or cartilage and it is often not detected until childhood. Depending on the severity and the type this can be lethal on the kids or does not affect the life of a child. Ultrasound scans show indicators of this condition but to get it confirmed genetic testing will provide a definite Diagnosis. This genetic test can also be done prenatally to check the genes for variants. A panel testing is performed when the findings are not clear. A single-gene test is conducted when one of the parents has skeletal dysplasia.
- Cervical dysplasia: A pap test is conducted to test this. If that test shows indications of this condition, Your dysplasia doctor may do a colonoscopy to take a look at your cervix and gather cells or tissue for a biopsy.
- Hip dysplasia: Physical examination is conducted as a primary test. Additionally, ultrasound may be ordered to check for deformity.
- Ectodermal dysplasia: Genetic tests are the best way to find out the type of Ectodermal Dysplasia. A specific gene is tested to confirm the type of this condition. If the gene is in a changed form then it is confirmed that the suspicion of the doctor is correct.
MDS or myelodysplastic syndrome: After performing a physical examination the following tests will be conducted to Diagnose MDS:
- Blood tests: A complete blood count or CBC test is conducted to get the count of the RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. This is done to rule out Vitamin B12, copper, iron deficiencies, or thyroid issues.
- PBS: Peripheral blood smear tests to check if the cells from a particular place are different from that of healthy cells.
- Biopsy: Aspiration of the bone marrow is done along with the removal of a small number of tissues for biopsy.
How is Dysplasia Treated?
The dysplasia cure will depend on the type and focuses on reducing the Symptoms. The Treatment for the following are:
- Skeletal dysplasia includes braces for back to improve the curvature of the spine, growth hormones, surgery.
- Ectodermal dysplasia Treatments are topical creams, antibacterial ointments, or dental hygiene routine.
- Cervical dysplasia can be Treated with laser surgery, Cryocauterization, or LEEP.
- MDS is Treated using blood transfusions or Stem cell transplant.
Dysplasia Symptoms can be managed when Diagnosed early. Visit our Care.fit experts to get dysplasia Diagnosis and the best Treatment results. They are available for direct one-one online video consultations.
How to Prevent Dysplasia?
Dysplasia can happen to many parts of the body and many of these are caused due to genetic issues. But there is also evidence that environmental factors along with genetics lead to this health condition. Some of the ways to Prevent this are:
- Avoiding smoking cigarettes and tobacco as that can fill the fluids in the cervix and other parts with chemicals.
- Maintaining a nutritious diet which is free of preservatives
- Following a healthy lifestyle of regular exercise and physical activity
- Reducing stress through various breathing techniques
- People with the genetic disposition of this condition are to have regular checks to catch it early.